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St. Mary's Learning Commons: Research Help

CRAAP Evaluation

How do you know if you found a GOOD source of information? ASK: Is it CRAAP?

Remember, you need to weigh the factors and not just look at one. 

Currency (when): is the information current enough for your needs?

  • When was the information published, posted, or revised?
  • How current does the information need to be for your topic? 
  • If you are using a website, do the links still work or are they broken?

Relevancy (what): does the information meet your research needs?

  • Is the information too detailed or too advanced? Or is it not detailed enough or too basic?
  • Is better information available in another source?

Authority (who): who is providing the information?    

  • Who wrote the article/book/website?
  • Does the author or organization an expert in the field? Do they have relevant education or experience?
  • If the author is unknown, who is the sponsor, publisher, or organization behind the information?

Accuracy or Reliability (where else): is the information supported? 

  • Are you are able to double check, verify or corroborate these facts from other sources?
  • Is there a works cited so that you can verify the information given if necessary? If not, is the information the author's opinion?
  • Are the sources listed reputable or just links to blogs and Wikipedia?

Purpose or Objectivity/Bias (why): why was this source created? 

  • What is the purpose of the information? To inform? Persuade? Sell? Entertain?
  • What are the author’s assumptions or biases? Are they clearly stated?
  • Does the point of view or tone appear to be objective? If not, is it clearly stated?

Adapted from:

Meriam Library. “Evaluating information -- Applying the CRAAP test.” California State University, 17 Sept. 2010. Web. 5 Feb. 2016.


User-friendliness is another factor to consider

Works Cited & Plagiarism Resources

MLA Citations


APA Citations


Citation Makers



Style Guides

University Libraries

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